This is the second part of three in which we will briefly discuss the basic Fiqh of Hajj according to the majority opinion of Sunni scholars. This part comprises of the next 5 subtitles (summarized and translated from the book Al Mulakhas Al Fiqhi by Shaikh Saalih Al Fawzaan):
7- Virtues of Hajj and preparing for it
فضل الحج و الاستعداد له
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أُمِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا ، أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ : ” يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، نَرَى الْجِهَادَ أَفْضَلَ الْعَمَلِ ، أَفَلَا نُجَاهِدُ ؟ ، قَالَ : لَا ، لَكِنَّ أَفْضَلَ الْجِهَادِ حَجٌّ مَبْرُورٌ
On the authority of ‘Aishah radhiallahu ‘anha that she asked the Messenger of Allah, “O Messenger of Allah, we consider Jihad to be the best of deeds, should we not take part in it?” He said, “The best of Jihad is an accepted Hajj.”
عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: العمرة إلى العمرة كفارة لما بينهما، والحج المبرور ليس له جزاء إلا الجنة
Abu Hurayrah reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “From one ‘Umrah to the next is expiation for everything in between them and there is no reward for an accepted hajj other than Jannah.”
How should a person prepare for Hajj?
Once a person has intended Hajj, he should repent from all his sins, the big and the small, and he should return the peoples’ property back to them. He should appoint someone to take care of his work that he leaves behind and guarantee that his children and family have what they need from his property. He should take with him from his wealth enough to take care of his needs while he is journeying so that he does not have to depend on others. Most importantly, he has to be careful that this wealth has been attained through halal means. He should also try his best to find the company of a righteous friend who will help him in his Hajj; guiding him if he gets lost and reminding him if he forgets. Finally, he should renew his intention and seek the pleasure of Allah in all his deeds; and try his best to beautify his character and manners with the people so as not to fall into dangerous deeds such as backbiting and anger that destroy good deeds.
8- Times and places in which Hajj is legislated (Meeqat)
2- Dhul Qa’da
3- The first ten days of Dhul Hijjah
ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال وقت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأهل المدينة ذا الحليفة ولأهل الشام الجحفة ولأهل نجد قرن المنازل ولأهلاليمن يلملم قال فهن لهن ولمن أتى عليهن من غير أهلهن ممن أراد الحج والعمرة فمن كان دونهن فمن أهله وكذا فكذلك حتى أهل مكة يهلون
Ibn ‘Abbas radhiallahu ‘anhuma narrated that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed Dhul Hulayfah as the Miqat for the people of Madinah; Al Juhfah for the people of Shaam; Qarn Al Manazil for the people of Najd; and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen; and these Mawaqit are for the people at those very places, and besides them for those who come thorough those places with the intention of performing Hajj and ‘Umrah; and whoever is living within these boundaries can assume lhram from the place he starts, and the people of Makkah can assume Ihram from Makkah. (Saheeh Muslim)
1- Dhul Hulayfah for the people of Madinah
2- Al Juhfah for the people of Shaam
3- Qarn Al Manazil for the people of Najd
4- Yalamlam for the people of Yemen
5- Dhat ‘Irq for the people of ‘Iraq
9- The nullifiers of Hajj
1- Cutting the hair (it does not harm his Ihram if his hair falls naturally)
2- Shortening the nails (it does not harm his Ihram if the nail gets chipped and he pulls it off)
3- Covering the head with any sort of headdress (for men)
4- Wearing stitched clothes that cover a specific part of the body (for men) such as pants, shirts, socks. As for women, they may wear whatever they wish as long as it covers their whole body, and the next post will explain the manner in which she must cover her face insha Allah
5- Perfuming the body or clothes
6- Hunting game
7- Nikaah contracts and marriage proposals (not allowed for him whether he is the Wali or the Wakeel)
If a person falls into one of these actions, there are specific deeds such as Fidyah that he must offer as compensation.
10- The Ihram
The Ihram is the first rite of Hajj; it is an intention that the Muslim makes before performing the Hajj. The wisdom behind the word “Ihram” is because after this intention, the halal actions which the Muslim enjoyed become haram for him (such as perfuming, wearing different types of clothing).
The Ihram also comprises of physical preparation and this is a brief summary of what is to be done:
1- Ghusl (a full bath) because the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did this and it is the best way to ensure complete cleanliness
2- He may perfume himself because the Messenger of Allah sallalllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did so (narrated in Bukhari)
3- He should avoid wearing that which covers a specific part of the body such as pants of a shirt and instead wear the “Ihram” as we call it nowadays, which is a two piece wrap around that covers the top half and lower half of the body
It is important to mention that avoiding stitched clothing before the intention of Ihram is SUNNAH, while it is WAJIB (obligatory) to avoid it after the intention. Also, the Ihram is not just physical preparation as mentioned earlier, therefore, his Ihram is not complete by just avoiding stitched clothing and taking a bath, rather, it is by intending the rites of Hajj and avoiding sins that his Ihram is complete.
4- There is no specific prayer for the Ihram but a person may pray the obligatory prayer and then prepare for Ihram, or pray a voluntary prayer in the times that it is Sunnah to pray such as the forenoon prayer (Salat Al Duha)
11- Types of Hajj
A Muslim may choose to perform his Hajj in any of the following ways:
1- Hajj Tamatu’ (التمتع) : in which he performs an ‘Umrah in any of the months of Hajj (Shawal to Dhul Hijjah) and removes his Ihram, then he may put on his Ihram again to perform the actual rites of Hajj
2- Hajj Ifraad (الإفراد): in which he puts on his Ihram at the Meeqat and performs only the rites of Hajj (without ‘Umrah)
3- Hajj Qiraan (القران): in which he puts on his Ihram for Hajj and and ‘Umrah (he intends to do both)
After a person intends one of these three, he may begin reciting the Talbiyah (look out for a detailed explanation of the Talbiyah in our upcoming posts):
لبيك اللهم لبيك لبيك لا شريك لك لبيك إن الحمد و النعمة لك و الملك لا شريك لك
The next and final post in the “Rites of Hajj” will be an explanation of the three types of Hajj in a more detailed way, plus a short summary of common mistakes people make in their Hajj that may affect the perfection of the worship and a woman’s attire during Hajj.
And Allah knows best.
الله أكبر .. الله أكبر .. لا إله إلا الله، الله أكبر .. الله أكبر .. ولله الحمد
-The Sahara Bloggers (Umm Saifullah)